lunes, 28 de agosto de 2017

César Vallejo



KISS


César Vallejo
(1892 - 1938)

Peruvian expatriate César Vallejo was a major poet, known for the authenticity and originality of his work. Deeply rooted in his mixed European and Peruvian Indian heritage, his poetry expressed universal themes related to the human condition. Sometimes called a surrealist poet, “Vallejo created a wrenching poetic language for Spanish that radically altered the shape of its imagery and the nature of its rhythms. No facile trend setter, Vallejo forged a new discourse in order to express his own visceral compassion for human suffering,” Edith Grossman writes in Los Angeles Times Book Review. “A constant feature of his poetry is a compassionate awareness of and a guilt-ridden sense of responsibility for the suffering of others,” observes James Higgins in The Poet in Peru: Alienation and the Quest for a Super-Reality. His compassion was informed by his own painful experience as an inmate in a Trujillo prison, as an expatriate political activist, and as a witness of the devastating Spanish Civil War. He also endured poverty and a chronic illness of which he died in 1938. Grossman relates, “He saw the world in piercing flashes of outrage and anguish, terror and pity. . . . A passionate, tragic poet, he mourned our loss of moral innocence and despaired of the injustice that moves the world.” 

Vallejo was born in Santiago de Chuco, a small village in the northern Andes mountains. Raised Catholic and encouraged to become a priest, he discovered that he could not adhere to the requirement of celibacy. His family relationships remained secure and close. For a time, he was a clerk in his father’s notary office. His mother’s friendship, in particular, was a sustaining force in his life until her death in 1923 (some sources say 1918). The comfort of his rural life set for Vallejo a standard against which all later experiences seemed arduous and painful. 

Early poems in his first collection Los heraldos negros (“The Black Messengers”) relate Vallejo’s bewilderment when struck with the harshness of city life in Trujillo and Lima, where he studied medicine, literature, and law. Introduced to the ideas of Marx, Darwin, and Rationalist philosophers, Vallejo felt that the faith in which he was raised was no longer viable. Together with other intellectuals, he became actively interested in his pre-Columbian heritage and was anguished to learn of the suffering of aboriginals in his country. When the parents of his lover broke off their relationship for reasons he did not understand, he attempted suicide. Higgins summarizes that Vallejo’s “arrival in Lima therefore, marks his initiation into a seemingly absurd and senseless world whose meaning escapes him.” Unable to replace the caring family he had lost, Vallejo felt alienated in the city. Alienation and the apparent senselessness of his suffering became his recurrent themes. 

Poems in Los heraldos negros, like most Latin American poetry of that time, follow the conventions of the modernista movement. The modernistas, D. P. Gallagher explains in Modern Latin American Literature, highlighted the melodic quality of language; breaking a taboo, Vallejo added erotic lyrics to the descriptions of beautiful landscape common to this style. Modernista poets Leopoldo Lugones and Julio Herrara y Reissig influenced the young Vallejo significantly. “They were both masters of the violently surprising image, and their poetry is free of the jaded air of fatigued mimicry that many modernistapoems had come to display,” Gallagher comments. By the end of Los heraldos negros in the “Canciones de hogar” (“Songs of Home”) section, Vallejo had given voice to concerns which would remain his major themes: he lamented his status as an orphan unprepared for the brutality of life in a world where God himself seemed powerless to intervene. In addition, the urgency of personal statement and original idiom in these poems show that Vallejo had outgrown his dependence on traditional literary models. Thus he presented a mature original voice having more social relevance and literary importance than his modernista mentors, Gallagher adds. 

After a number of years in Trujillo and Lima, in 1920 Vallejo returned to his birthplace where he became involved in a political insurrection during which the town’s general store burned down. He was accused of instigating the conflict and was jailed for three months. Added to the death of his mother, the isolation and savagery of jail conditions affected him deeply. “The subject of a number of poems, that experience reinforced his belief in the world’s arbitrary cruelty and his sense of inadequacy in the face of it,” Higgins writes in A History of Peruvian Literature. Accordingly, poems written in prison (collected in Trilce) are markedly different from the idyllic poems of Los heraldos negros. 

Trilce is more difficult, more intense, and more original than Vallejo’s first volume. Pared of all ornamental language, these poems convey the poet’s personal urgency as he cries out against the apparent meaninglessness of his suffering. Trilce introduces the wrenched syntax that allows Vallejo to get beyond the constraints of received linguistic conventions to a language that is true to his experience. Writing in A History of Peruvian Literature, Higgins catalogues the elements of Vallejo’s diction: “Vallejo confounds the reader’s expectations by his daring exploitation of the line pause, which often leaves articles, conjunctions and even particles of words dangling at the end of a line, by his frequent resort to harsh sounds to break the rhythm, by employing alliterations so awkward as to be tongue-twisters. He distorts syntactic structures, changes the grammatical function of words, plays with spelling. His poetic vocabulary is frequently unfamiliar and ‘unliterary,’ he creates new words of his own, he often conflates two words into one, he tampers with cliches to give them new meaning, he plays on the multiple meaning of words and on the similarity of sound between words. He repeatedly makes use of oxymoron and paradox and, above all, catachresis, defamiliarising objects by attributing to them qualities not normally associated with them.” 

Vallejo’s wrenched syntax is not a mere literary performance; it is the means necessary “to discover the man that has been hitherto hidden behind its decorative facades. The discovery is not a pleasant one, and the noise in the poems make it consequently aggressive and not beautiful,” Gallagher observes. Out of Vallejo’s self-discovery comes an “unprecedented, raw language” that declares Vallejo’s humanness despite his confinement to make a statement “about the human problems of which Vallejo is a microcosm,” Gallagher adds. New York Review of Books contributor Michael Wood explains, “With Vallejo it is an instrument—the only possible instrument, it seems—for the confrontation of complexity, of the self caught up in the world and the world mirrored in the self. It is an answer, let us say, to the simultaneous need for a poetry that would put heart into an agonizing Spain and for a poetry that will not take wishes for truths.” Gallagher suggests that Vallejo was “perhaps the first Latin American writer to have realized that it is precisely in the discovery of a language where literature must find itself in a continent where for centuries the written word was notorious more for what it concealed than for what it revealed, where ‘beautiful’ writing, sheer sonorous wordiness was a mere holding operation against the fact that you did not dare really say anything at all.” 

The facade separating Vallejo from the truth about himself—and all men—was one of many boundaries he strove to break through by means of writing. This is most evident in Trilce where the poet recognizes his imprisonment as a symbol of the human struggle against all limitations. For example, for Vallejo, the Spanish Civil War points to the existence of man’s greater struggle, a predetermined conflict between an individual and his desires for transcendence, as he phrased it in Poemas humanos. “More than a political event,” states Gallagher, to Vallejo the war was yet another facet of entropy, “that dismemberment of unity which we have seen him observing even in his own body.” 

Vallejo saw that beyond the obvious constraints of government, society, and culture, man is incarcerated by time, space, and his biological limitations. Repeatedly the later poems complain of “the frustration of the poet’s spiritual aspirations by the limitations of the flesh,” relates Higgins in The Poet in Peru.The poet’s hope of freedom seems to be precluded by an inescapable biological determinism, Jean Franco notes in César Vallejo: The Dialectics of Poetry and Silence. “While his spirit holds up to him a vision of a higher life, his experience of hunger and illness brings home to him the extent to which his existence is lived on an elemental level, through that frail, decaying body of his which constantly demands satisfaction of its appetites and repeatedly breaks down under the effects of illness and age,” Higgins elaborates. He adds, “Much more serious, the poet-doctor insinuates, is the malaise brought on by reasoning which, by destroying illusions and laying bare the vanity of things, insidiously undermines his spiritual health. Since man is unable to find any meaning to life, he has no real existence and lives only through the anguished sense of futility which is slowly destroying him and which has become contagious in an age when all human values seem to have failed.” Though it becomes more subtle in later books, the theme of man versus his limits continues throughout Vallejo’s work. 

In 1923, Vallejo moved to Europe. Until 1930, when he was expelled from France for his unorthodox politics, he lived in Paris, where he wrote articles about the need to get beyond the superficiality of much contemporary poetry. Literary posturing sustained by simple mimicry of the style currently in vogue may disguise a poet’s lack of talent but will not render a vital contribution to life or art, he maintained in Literatura y arte. The harshness of his standards is perhaps forgivable in that he applied them relentlessly to his own work, Gallagher comments. By achieving authenticity in innovative language, Vallejo influenced many younger poets to embrace nontraditional techniques. 

In the 1920s and 1930s Vallejo became more engaged in politics. His three visits to the Soviet Union—the first in 1928—aided the formulation of his political views, and he subsequently produced political tracts including Rusia en 1931 and Reflexiones al pie del Kremlin, first published in Spain and not printed in Peru until almost thirty years later. He also wrote the novel El tungsteno (“Tungsten”), which condemns an American company for exploiting its Peruvian workers to get the element it needed to make weapons. Political statements emerge in his other works as well, but they do not dominate. Vallejo was an ambivalent Marxist. Gallagher reports, “Vallejo regards Communism, in Poemas humanos and ‘Espana, aparta de mi este caliz,’ as . . . just the vague sighting of a way out from a world that nevertheless remains as hermetically frontier-bound as that of Trilce.” Higgins finds evidence in Poemas humanos that Vallejo sometimes admired the single-mindedness of those who could submit themselves to “the cause,” but again found it impossible to subject himself without question to Marxist or communist ideals. He moved to Spain during its war years to work as a journalist and lend support to his friends in defense of the Spanish Republic. At the same time, Vallejo admired the brotherhood achieved among the activists who gave their lives to serve what they believed was the improvement of life for the poor. 

After he died in 1938, his widow Georgette de Vallejo selected poems for publication in Poemas humanos. Gallagher maintains that the style of this volume is best described as “eccentric,” in two senses of the word. Poemas humanos was written in a highly personal idiom. Vallejo expressed the suffering of people in general, for instance, in the terms of his own specific experience in a violently contorted language. Secondly, Vallejo’s word choice was often “ex-centric” or off center to parallel the ambiguous nature of contemporary experience. In Vallejo’s poems, things and events do not function as symbols; they signify no apparent cause, no meaning behind the objects and events of daily life. At the same time the poems are haunted by the dread that meaning does exist, but humanity cannot grasp it. If man’s “a priori” contest is “beyond reckoning,” as Vallejo wrote in Poemas humanos, it must also lay somewhat beyond words. Vallejo’s unique diction is a natural extension of his personal crisis. 

Though he won little critical acclaim before his death, Vallejo came “to be recognized as an artist of world stature, the greatest poet not only of Peru but of all Spanish America,” Higgins sums up in The History of Peruvian Literature.Gallagher concludes, “There is no poet in Latin America like Vallejo, . . . who has bequeathed so consistently personal an idiom, and no poet so strictly rigorous with himself. It is a curiously subtle, menacing world that he has left us in his mature works.” Vallejo will be remembered for discovering a unique poetic language that expresses what he perceived as the frustration inherent in the human condition and the chaos of the world. Franco comments that for Vallejo, using that language was a vital exercise of freedom: “Vallejo knew that with every automatic word and gesture man contributes to his own damnation and imprisonment. His great achievement as a poet is to have interrupted that easy-flowing current of words which is both a solace and the mark of our despair, to have made each poem an act of consciousness which involves the recognition of difficulty and pain.” Vallejo is seen as the progenitor of many innovations in poetic technique. New York Times Book Review contributor Alexander Coleman observes that Vallejo, “the standard for authenticity and intensity” in Hispanic literature, opened the way for future poets by leaving to them “a language swept clean, now bright and angular, ready for the man in the street.”


César Vallejo, Trilce, 1922

WORKS

    Los heraldos negros (1919)

    Los Heraldos Negros (The Black Messengers) was completed in 1918, but not published until 1919. Robert Bly, in the 1993 edited volume Neruda and Vallejo: Selected Poems, describes it as "a staggering book, sensual, prophetic, affectionate, wild," and as "the greatest single collection of poems I have ever read." The title is likely suggestive of the four horsemen of the apocalypse, as the book itself touches on topics of religiosity, life and death.

    Trilce (1922)

    Trilce, published in 1922, anticipated much of the avant-garde movement that would develop in the 1920s and 1930s. Vallejo's book takes language to a radical extreme, inventing words, stretching syntax, using automatic writing and other techniques now known as "surrealist" (though he did this before the Surrealist movement began). The book put Latin America at the center of the Avant-garde. Like James Joyce's Finnegans Wake, Trilce borders on inaccessibility.

    España, aparta de mí este cáliz (1937)

    In España, aparta de mí este cáliz (Spain, Take This Chalice from Me), Vallejo takes the Spanish Civil War (1936–39) as a living representation of a struggle between good and evil forces, where he advocates for the triumph of mankind symbolised in the salvation of the Second Spanish Republic (1931–39) that was being attacked by fascist allied forces led by General Franco. In 1994 Harold Bloom included España, Aparta de Mí Este Cáliz in his list of influential works of the Western Canon.

    Poemas humanos (1939)

    Poemas Humanos (Human Poems), published by the poet's wife after his death, is a leftist work of political, socially oriented poetry. Although a few of these poems appeared in magazines during Vallejo's lifetime, almost all of them were published posthumously. The poet never specified a title for this grouping, but while reading his body of work his widow found that he had planned a book of "human poems", which is why his editors decided on this title. Of this the poet's last written work, it was said"... after a long silence, as if the presentiment of death might have urged him, he wrote in a few months the Poemas humanos."




    Selected works available in English

  • The Complete Poetry of César Vallejo (Edited and Translated by Clayton Eshleman. With a Foreword by Mario Vargas Llosa, an Introduction by Efrain Kristal, and a Chronology by Stephen M. Hart.) University of California Press. (shortlisted for the 2008 International Griffin Poetry Prize)
  • The Complete Posthumous Poetry of César Vallejo (Translators: Clayton Eshleman and José Rubia Barcia), University of California Press 
  • Malanga Chasing Vallejo: Selected Poems of César Vallejo with New Translations and Notes (Edited, Translated and with an Introduction by Gerard Malanga; also includes original and translated correspondence between the translator and Vallejo's widow Georgette de Vallejo) Three Rooms Press.  (Trade Paperback) and 978-1-9411101-0-2 (ebook).
  • Trilce (Translators: Michael Smith, Valentino Gianuzzi). Shearsman Books. 
  • The Complete Later Poems 1923–1938 (Translators: Michael Smith, Valentino Gianuzzi). Shearsman Books.
  • The Black Heralds (Translator: Rebecca Seiferle) 
  • Trilce (Translator: Rebecca Seiferle) Sheep Meadow Press. 
  • The Black Heralds (Translator: Barry Fogden) Allardyce, Barnett Publishers. 
  • The Black Heralds (Translators: Richard Schaaf and Kathleen Ross) Latin American Literary Review Press. 
  • Trilce (Translator: Dave Smith) Mishima Books.
  • Autopsy on Surrealism (Translator: Richard Schaaf) Curbstone Press. 
  • Cesar Vallejo (Translators: Gordon Brotherstone and Edward Dorn) Penguin. 
  • Neruda and Vallejo: Selected Poems (Translators: Robert Bly and James Wright) Beacon Press. 
  • I'm going to speak of hope (Translator: Peter Boyle) Peruvian Consulate Publication.
  • Cesar Vallejo: An Anthology of His Poetry (Introduction by James Higgins) The Commonwealth and International Library.
  • Selected Poems of Cesar Vallejo (Translator: H. R. Hays) Sachem Press. 
  • Poemas Humanos, Human Poems, by César Vallejo, a bilingual edition translated by Clayton Eshleman. Copyright 1968. Grove Press, 1969, xxv + 326 pp. 
  • The Mayakovsky Case (Translator: Richard Schaaf) Curbstone Press.
  • Tungsten (Translator: Robert Mezey) Syracuse University Press. 
  • Songs of Home (Translators: Kathleen Ross and Richard Schaaf) Ziesing Brothers Book Emporium.
  • Spain Take This Cup from Me (Translator: Mary Sarko ) Azul. 
  • Spain, Let This Cup 
  • Trilce (Selections from the 1922 Edition), Vols. 38/39 and 40/41 (Translator: Prospero Saiz) Abraxas Press. 
  • Trilce (Homophonic translator: James Wagner). Calamari Press. 






miércoles, 16 de agosto de 2017

Ernest Hemingway



Ernest Hemingway



DRAGON



Short Stories



KISS





Ernest Hemingway
(1899 -  1961)


One of the most famous American novelist, short-story writer and essayist, whose deceptively simple prose style have influenced wide range of writers. Hemingway was awarded the 1954 Nobel Prize for Literature. He was unable to attend the award ceremony in Stockholm, because he was recuperating from injuries sustained in an airplane crash while hunting in Uganda.

Ernest Hemingway
Milan, 1918

"Certainly there is no hunting like the hunting of man and those who have hunted armed men long enough and liked it, never really care for anything else thereafter. You will meet them doing various things with resolve, but their interest rarely holds because after the other thing ordinary life is as flat as the taste of wine when the taste buds have been burned off your tongue." 
('On the Blue Water' in Esquire, April 1936)




Ernest Hemingway was born inn Oak Park, Illinois. His mother Grace Hall, whom he never forgave for dressing him as a little girl in his youth, had an operatic career before marrying Dr. Clarence Edmonds Hemingway; he taught his son to love out-door life. Hemingway's father took his own life in 1928 after losing his healt to diabetes and his money in the Florida real-estate bubble. Hemingway attended the public schools in Oak Park and published his earliest stories and poems in his high school newspaper. Upon his graduation in 1917, Hemingway worked six months as a reporter for The Kansas City Star. He then joined a volunteer ambulance unit in Italy during World War I. In 1918 he suffered a severe leg wound. For his service, Hemingway was twice decorated by the Italian government.
Hemingway's affair with an American nurse, Agnes von Kurowsky, during his hospital recuperation gave basis for the novel A Farewell to Arms (1929). The tragic love story was filmed first time in 1932, starring Gary Cooper, Helen Hayes, and Adolphe Menjou. In the second version from 1957, written by Ben Hecht and directed by Charles Vidor, Rock Hudson and Jennifer Jones were in the leading roles. Its failure caused David O. Selznick to produce no more films.
After the war Hemingway worked for a short time as a journalist in Chicago. He moved in 1921 to Paris, where wrote articles for theToronto Star. "If you are lucky enough to have lived in Paris as a young man, then whenever you go for the rest of your life, it stays with you, for Paris is a moveable feast." (A Moveable Feast, 1964) While traveling to Switzerland in 1922, Hemingway's first wife Hadley lost a piece of luggage, which contained everything he had written to date. 
In Europe, the center of modernist movement, Hemingway associated with such writers as Gertrude Stein and F. Scott Fitzgerald, who edited some of his texts and acted as his agent. Later Hemingway portrayed Fitzgerald in A Moveable Feast (1964), but less sympathetically. Fitzgerald, however, regretted their lost friendship. Of Gertrude Stein Hemingway wrote to Maxwell Perkins, his editor: "She lost all sense of taste when she had the menopause. Was really an extraordinary business. Suddenly she couldn't tell a good picture from a bad one, a good writer from a bad one, it all went phtt." (in The Only Thing That Counts, 1996) 
When he was not writing for the newspaper or for himself, Hemingway toured with his wife, the former Elisabeth Hadley Richardson, France, Switzerland, and Italy. Before moving on rue du Cardinal-Lemoine, he spent some time with Hadley at the Hôtel Jacob, a former British Embassy, which served after the war as temporary headuarters for many newly arrived Americans, including Djuna Barnes, Sherwood and Tennessee Anderson, and Harold Loeb. They had no running water in their tiny, fourth-floor apartment, a toilet was on each landing, but Hemingway boasted that it was in "the best part of the Latin Quarter." 
In 1922 Hemingway went to Greece and Turkey to report on the war between those countries. Hemingway made two trips to Spain in 1923, on the second to see bullfights at Pamplona's annual festival. The Hemingways' second flat in Paris was on rue Notre-Dame-des-Champs; it was small and dark. They kept this residence until their separation in the autumn of 1926. After divorce, Hadley and her son, John (called as "Bumby"), moved to a sixth-floor flat on Boulevard Auguste-Blanqui. John grew up to be called Jack. At preschool age, he played with Julie Bowen, the daughter of Stella Bowen and Ford Madox Ford 
Hemingway's first books, Three Stories and Ten Poems (1923), of which he received no advance at all, and In Our Time (1924), were published in Paris. The Torrents of Spring  (1926) was a parody of Sherwood Anderson's style. Hemingway's first serious novel was The Sun Also Rises (1926). The story, narrated by an American journalist, deals with a group of expatriates in France and Spain, members of the disillusioned post-World War I Lost Generation. Main characters are Lady Brett Ashley and Jake Barnes. Lady Brett loves Jake, who has been wounded in war and can't answer her needs. Although Hemingway never explicitly detailed Jake's injury, is seem that he has lost his testicles but not his penis. Jake and Brett and their odd group of friends have various adventures around Europe, in Madrid, Paris, and Pampalona. In attempt to cope with their despair they turn to alcohol, violence, and sex. As Jake, Hemingway was wounded in WW I; they share also interest in bullfighting. The story ends bitter-sweet: "Oh, Jake, Brett said, "we could have had such a damned good time together." Hemingway wrote and rewrote the novel in various parts of Spain and France between 1924 and 1926. It became his first great success. Although the Hemingway's language is simple, he used understatement and omission which make the text multilayered and rich in allusions.
After the publication of Men Without Women(1927), Hemingway returned to the United States, settling in Key West, Florida. Hemingway and Hadley divorced in 1927. On the same year Hemingway married Pauline Pfeiffer, a wealthy fashion editor, but at their first meeting, he had been more impressed by her sister Jinny. Hadley worked part-time for the Paris edition of Vogue magazine. 
The newlyweds resided in an apartment on Rue Ferou. Since Hemingway had abandoned journalism and he had no regular income, Pauline's uncle covered their initial rent. The house had a garden courtyard, and the apartments included a large master bedroom, dining room with a kitchen, two bathrooms, a small study, a salon, and a spare room. In Florida Hemingway wrote A Farewell to Arms, which was published in 1929. Its scene is the Italian front in World War I, where two lovers find a brief happiness. The novel gained enormous critical and commercial success.
In 1930s Hemingway wrote such major works as Death in the Afternoon  (1932), a nonfiction account of Spanish bullfighting, and The Green Hills of Africa (1935), a story of a hunting safari in East Africa. "All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn," is perhaps the most quoted line from the story. To  Have and Have Not (1937) was made into a film by the director Howard Hawks. They had became friends in the late 1930s. Hawks also liked to hunt, fish, and drink, and the author got along with Hawk's wife Slim, who later said: "There was an immediate and instant attraction between us, unstated but very, very strong." According to a story, Hawks had told Hemingway that he can make "a movie out of the worst thing you ever wrote." The author has asked, "What's the worst thing I ever wrote?" and Haws said, "That piece of junk called To Have and Have Not." "I needed the money," Hemingway said. The screenplay of the film was written by Jules Furthman and William Faulkner.



"And then it just occurred to him that he was going to die. It came with a rush, not as a rush of water nor of wind; but of a sudden evil-smelling emptiness, and the odd thing was that the hyena slipped lightly along the edge of it." 
(in 'The Snows of Kilimanjaro')

Wallace Stevens once termed Hemingway "the most significant of living poets, so far as the subject of extraordinary reality is concerned." By "poet" Stevens referred to the author's stylistic achievements in his short fiction. Like Gertrude Stein, Hemingway applied techniques from modernist poetry to his writing, such as the artful use of repetition, although in lesser extent than Stein. Hemingway's much quoted "ice-berg theory" was that "If a writer of prose knows enough about what he is writing about, he may omit things that he knows and the reader . . . will have a feeling of those things as though the writer had stated them."
One of Hemingway's most frequently anthologized short stories is 'The Snows of Kilimanjaro,' first published in Esquire in August 1936. It begins with an epitaph telling that the western summit of the mountain is called the House of God, and close to it was found the carcass of a leopard. Down on the savanna the failed writer Harry is dying of gangrene in an hunting camp. "He had loved too much, demanded too much, and he wrote it all out." Just before the end, Harry has a vision, that he is taken up the see the top of Kilimanjaro on a rescue plane-"great, high, and unbelievably white in the sun." In the film version of the story, directed by Henry King, Harry does not die. Nick Adams, Hemingway's autobiographical pre-World War II character, featured in three collections, In Our TimeMen Without Women, and Winner Take Nothing (1933).
While sailing across the Atlantic on the Ile de France in 1934, Hemingway met the actress Marlene Dietrich, whom he came to call "My little Kraut." They became lifelong friends.  Dietrich stored his letters, written between 1949 and 1953, in a fireproof box. In 1937 Hemingway observed the Spanish Civil war firsthand. As many writers, he supported the cause of the Loyalist. In Madrid he met Martha Gellhorn, a writer and war correspondent, who became his third wife in 1940. The first years of his marriage were happy, but he soon realized that Gellhorn was not a housewife, but an ambitious journalist. Gellhorn called Hemingway her "Unwilling Companion". She was eager to travel and "take the pulse of the nation" or the world.
With To Whom the Bells Toll (1940) Hemingway returned again in Spain. He dedicated to book to Gellhorn-Maria in the story was partly modelled after her. "Her hair was the golden brow of a grain field," Hemingway wrote of his heroine. The story covered only a few days and concerned the blowing up of a bridge by a small group of partisans. When the heroine in A Farewell to Arms dies at the end of the story, after giving birth to a stillborn child, now it is time for the hero, Robert Jordan, to sacricife his life. The theme of the coming of death also was central in the novel Across the River and into the Trees (1950).
In addition to hunting expeditions in Africa and Wyoming, Hemingway developed a passion for deep-sea fishing in the waters off Key West, the Bahamas, and Cuba. He also armed his fishing boat, the Pilar, and monitored with his crew Nazi activities and their submarines in that area during World War II. In 1940 Hemingway bought Finca Vigia, a house outside Havana, Cuba. Its surroundings were a paradise for his undisciplined bunch of cats.
In early 1941 Gellhorn made with Hemingway a long, 30,000 mile journey to China. Just before the Invasion of Normandy in 1944, Hemingway managed to get to London, where he settled at the Dorchester Hotel. Before it, he had taken Gellhorn's position as Collier'sleading correspondent. She arrived two weeks later, and settled in a separate room. Hemingway observed the D-Day landing below the Normandy cliffs; Gellhorn went ashore with the troops. Back in Paris after many years, Hemingway spent much time at the Ritz Hotel. Hemingways's divorce from Gellhorn in 1945 was bitter. Later Gellhorn said that having "lived with a mythomaniac, I know they believe everything they say, they are not conscious liars, they invent to increase everything about themselves and their lives and believe it." In 1946 Hemingway returned to Cuba. After Gellhorn had left him, he married Mary Welsh, a correspondent for Time magazine, whom he had met in a London restaurant in 1944.
Hemingway's drinking had started already when he was a reporter, and could tolerate large amounts of alcohol. For a long time, drinking did not affect the quality of his writing. In the late 1940s he started to hear voices in his head, he was overweight, the blood pressure was high, and he had clear signs of cirrhosis of the liver. His ignorance of the dangers of liquor Hemingway revealed when he taught his 12-year-oldson Patrick to drink. The same happened with his brothers. Patrick had later in life problems with alcohol. Gregory, who was a transvestite, used drugs-he died at the age of 69 in a women's prison in Florida.
Across the River and Into the Trees, Hemingway's first novel in a decade, was poorly received, but the allegorical 27,000 word story The Old Man and the Sea, published first in Life magazine in 1952, restored again his fame. The proragonist is an old Cuban fisherman named Santiago, who finally catches a giant marlin after weeks of disappointments. As he returns to the harbor, the sharks eat the fish, lashed to his boat. The model for Santiago was a Cuban fisherman, Gregorio Fuentes, who died in January 2002, at the age of 104. Fuentes had served as the captain of Hemingway's boat Pilar in the late 1930s and was occasionally his tapster. Hemingway also made a fishing trip to Peru in part to shoot footage for a film version of the Old Man and the Sea.
In 1959 Hemingway visited Spain, where her met the famous bullfighter Luis Miguel Dominquín at a hospital. Abull had caught Dominquín in the groin. "Why the hell do the good and brave have to die before everyone else?" he said. However, Dominquín did not die. Hemingway planned to wrote another book of bullfighting but published instead A Moveable Feast, a memoir of the 1920s in Paris.
Much of his time Hemingway spent in Cuba until Fidel Castro's 1959 revolution. He supported Castro but when the living became too difficult, he moved to the United States. While visiting Africa in 1954, Hemingway was in two flying accidents and was taken to a hospital. In the same year he started to write True at First Light, which was his last full-length book. Part of it appeared in Sports Illustrated in 1972 under the title African Journal.
In 1960 Hemingway was hospitalized at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, for treatment of depression, and released in 1961. During this time he was given electric shock therapy for two months. He believed that FBI agents were following him, which was true: they had compiled a large file on him. On July 2 Hemingway committed suicide with his favorite shotgun at his home in Ketchum, Idaho. Several of Hemingway's novels have been published posthumously. True at First Light, depiction of a safari in Kenya, appeared in July 1999. It is one of the worst books written by a Nobel writer.







For further reading: Ernest Hemingway: A Life Story by C. Baker (1969); My Brother, Ernest Hemingway by L. Hemingway (1962); Papa: Hemingway in Key West by J. McLendon (1972, rev. ed. 1990); Hemingway, Life and Works by G.B. Nelson and G. Jones (1985); Hemingway by Kenneth Lynn (1987); The Hemingway Women by B. Kert (1983); Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises by F.J. Svoboda (1983); Ernest Hemingwayby K. Ferrell (1984); Ernest Hemingway's A Farewell to Arms, ed. by H. Bloom (1987); Ernest Hemingway Rediscovered by N. Fuentes (1988); A Reader's Guide to the Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway, ed. by P. Smith (1989); Ernest Hemingway: A Study of the Short Fiction by J.M. Flora (1989); Ernest Hemingway by P.L. Hays (1990); Hemingway and Spain by E.F. Stanton (1990); Hemingway's Art of Nonfiction by R. Weber (1990); Ernest Hemingway by R.B. Lyttle (1992); Hemingway: A Life Without Consequences by James R. Mellow (1993); Hemingway: The 1930s by Michael Reynolds (1997); Hemingway vs. Fitzgerald: The Rise and Fall of a Literary Friendship by Scott Donaldson (1999);Hemingway’s Boat: Everything He Loved in Life, and Lost, 1934–1961 by Paul Hendrickson (2011)  - Films (see also below): Among Hemingway's several film adaptations are also The Macomber Affair (dir. by Zoltan Korda, 1946), The Breaking Point (dir. Michael Curtiz, 1950),The Snows of Kilimanjaro (dir. Henry King, 1952), Ernest Hemingway's Adventures of a Young Man (dir. by Martin Ritt, 1962), The Killers (dir. Don Siegel, 1964). Ava Gardner played in three Hemingway films: The KillersThe Snows of Kilimanjaro, and The Sun Also Rises. She became friend of the writer and aficionada of bullfighting. 



Selected bibliography:
  • Three Stories and Ten Poems, 1923
  • In Our Time, 1924
  • The Torrents of Spring, 1926
  • The Sun Also Rises, 1926 (GB title: Fiesta) 
    - film: The Sun Also Rises, 1957, dir. Henry King , screenplay by Peter Viertel, starring Tyrone Power, Ava Gardner, Errol Flynn, Mel Ferrer
  • Men Without Women, 1927
  • A Farewell to Arms, 1929  
    - films: A Farewell to Arms, 1932, screenplay Benjamin Glazer, Oliver H.P. Garrett, dir. Frank Borgaze, starring Helen Hayes, Gary Cooper, Adolphe Menjou; A Farewell to Arms, 1957, screenplay Ben Hecht, dir. Charles Vidor, starring Rock Hudson, Jennifer Jones, Vittorio De Sica
  • Death in the Afternoon, 1932 
    Winner Take Nothing, 1933
  • Green Hills of Africa, 1935 
    To Have and Have Not, 1937 
  • - films: To Have and Have Not , 1944, dir. Hawks,  co-script William Faulkner starring Humphrey Bogart, Lauren Bacall, Walter Brennan, Dolores Moran, Hoagy Carmichael; The Breaking Point, 1950, dir. Michael Curtiz, starring John Garfield, Patricia Neal, Phyllis Thaxter; The Gun Runners, 1958, dir. Don Siegel, starring Audie Murphy, Everett Sloane, Gita Hall, Patricia Owens, Eddie Albert; Nakhoda Khorshid, 1987, prod. Pakhshiran, The Peiman Film Group, dir. Naser Taghvai, starring Dariush Arjmand, Ali Nassirian and Saeed Poursamimi
  • The Spanish War, 1938
  • The Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway, 1938
  • The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories, 1938 
    - films: The Killers, 1946, screenplay by Anthony Veiller, dir. Robert Siodmak, starring Burt Lancaster, Ava Gardner; The Macomber Affair, 1947, adaptation by Seymour Bennett, dir.  Zoltan Korda, starring Gregory Peck, Joan Bennett; The Snows of Kilimanjaro, 1950, dir. Henry King, starringGregory Peck, Susan Hayward, Ava Gardner; The Killers, 1964,  adaptation by Gene L. Coon, dir. Don Siegel, starring Lee Marvin, Angie Dickinson, John Cassavetes, Clu Gulager; Hills Like White Elephants, 2002, dir. Paige Cameron, starring Greg Wise, Emma Griffiths Malin; A Clean, Well-Lighted Place, 2002, adaptation by M. Merriam Berger, dir. William Tyler Alspaugh; God Rest You Merry, Gentlemen, 2005, dir.  Justin Spence; Los Asesinos / The Killers, 2006, dir. Eduardo Moyano Fernández; Killarna - en far og seks syv brødre, 2006, dir.  Johannes Trägårdh Jensen; Bokser ide u raj, 2007, dir. Nikola Lezaic
  • The Spanish Earth, 1938 (film commentary)
  • For Whom the Bell Tolls 1940 
    - film: For Whom the Bell Tolls, 1943, prod. Paramount Pictures, screenplay Dudley Nichols, dir. Sam Wood, starring Ingrid Bergman, Gary Cooper, Akim Tamiroff
  • The Portable Hemingway, 1942 (edited by Malcolm Cowley)
  • The Essential Hemingway, 1947
  • Across the River and Into the Trees, 1950 
    The Old Man and the Sea, 1952 (Pulitzer Prize in 1953) 
  • - films: The Old Man and the Sea, 1958, prod. Leland Hayward Productions, Warner Bros. Pictures, screenplay Peter Viertel, dir.  John Sturges, starring Spencer Tracy, Felipe Pazos; TV movie 1990, teleplay Roger O. Hirson, dir. Jud Taylor, starring Anthony Quinn, Gary Cole and Patricia Clarkson
  • The Hemingway Reader, 1953 (selected, with a foreword and twelve brief prefaces by Charles Poore)
  • The Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway, 1953 
  • Two Christmas Tales, 1958
  • The Wild Years, 1962 (edited and introduced by Gene Z. Hanrahan)
  • Three Novels: The Sun also Rises; with an introd. by Malcolm Cowley. A Farewell to Arms; with an introd. by Robert Penn Warren. The Old Man and the Sea; with an introd. by Carlos Baker, 1962
  • A Moveable Feast, 1964 (ed. Mary Hemingway; restored edition, 2009, ed. Seán Hemingway)
  • By-Line: Ernest Hemingway: Selected Articles and Dispatches of Four Decades, 1967 (edited by William White, with commentaries by Philip Young) 
  • The Fifth Column and Four Stories of the Spanish Civil War, 1969
  • Hemingway's African Stories: The Stories, Their Sources, Their Critics, 1969 (compiled by John M. Howell)
  • Ernest Hemingway, Cub Reporter: Kansas City Star Stories, 1970 (edited by Matthew Joseph Bruccoli)
  • Islands in the Stream, 1970 
    - film: Islands in the Stream, 1976, prod. Paramount Pictures, Zeeuwse Maatschappij N.V. , screenplay Denne Bart Petitclerc, dir. by Franklin J. Schaffner, starring George C. Scott, David Hemmings
  • Ernest Hemingway's Apprenticeship: Oak Park, 1916-1917, 1971 (edited by Matthew Joseph Bruccoli)
  • The Nick Adams Stories, 1972 (pref. by Philip Young)
    - Nick Adamsin tarina (suom. Juhani Jaskari, 1979)
  • The Enduring Hemingway: An Anthology of a Lifetime in Literature, 1974 (edited with an introd. by Charles Scribner, Jr.)
  • 88 Poems, 1979 (edited with an introd. and notes by Nicholas Gerogiannis) 
  • Complete Poems, 1979 (edited, with an introduction and notes by Nicholas Gerogiannis)
  • Ernest Hemingway Selected Letters 1917–1961, 1981 (edited by Carlos Baker) 
  • Ernest Hemingway on Writing, 1984 (edited by Larry W. Phillips) 
  • Dateline: Toronto: The Complete Toronto star dispatches, 1920-1924, 1985 (edited by William White) 
  • The Dangerous Summer, 1985 (introduction by James A. Michener) 
  • Conversations with Ernest Hemingway, 1986 (edited by Matthew J. Bruccoli)
  • The Garden of Eden, 1986 
    - film: The Garden of Eden, 2008, prod. Devonshire Productions, Berwick Street Productions, Freeform Spain, screenplay James Scott Linville, dir. John Irvin, starring Jack Huston, Mena Suvari, Caterina Murino
  • The Complete Short Stories Of Ernest Hemingway, 1987
  • The Complete Poems, 1992 (rev. ed., edited with an introduction and notes by Nicholas Gerogiannis) 
  • The Only Thing That Counts: The Ernest Hemingway/Maxwell Perkins Correspondence, 1925-1947, 1996 (edited by Matthew J. Bruccoli)
  • True at First Light, 1999 (edited with an introduction by Patrick Hemingway) 
  • Hemingway on Fishing, 2000 (edited and with an introduction by Nick Lyons; foreword by Jack Hemingway)
  • Hemingway on Hunting, 2003 (edited and with an introduction by Seán Hemingway; foreword by Patrick Hemingway)
  • Hemingway on War, 2003 (edited and with an introduction by Seán Hemingway; foreword by Patrick Hemingway)
  • Under Kilimanjaro, 2005 (edited by Robert W. Lewis and Robert E. Fleming) 
  • Dear Papa, Dear Hotch: The Correspondence of Ernest Hemingway and A.E. Hotchner, 2005 (edited by Albert J. DeFazio, III; preface by A.E. Hotchner)
  • Hemingway and the Mechanism of Fame: Statements, Public Letters, Introductions, Forewords, Prefaces, Blurbs, Reviews, and Endorsements, 2006 (edited by Matthew J. Bruccoli with Judith S. Baughman)
  • Hemingway on Paris, 2008
  • The Good Life according to Hemingway, 2008 (edited by A.E. Hotchner)
  • The Letters of Ernest Hemingway, 2011- (edited by Sandra Spanier and Robert W. Trogdon)